Cardiac Disease

Target System Diagnostics detect the presence of specific markers with the results indicating definitive levels present. The quantitative tests can be developed in minutes utilizing the Target Desktop Analyzer.


Heart attack must be diagnosed quickly. Medications to prevent heart damage are effective only within a limited number of hours. Yet, because of their risk for excessive bleeding, these medications are given only after a diagnosis of heart attack is made. There are several cardiac markers used to make the diagnosis. Cardiac markers are substances in blood whose levels rise in the hours following a heart attack. Increased levels help diagnose a heart attack; persistent normal levels rule it out. Each cardiac marker rises, peaks, and returns to a normal level according to its own timeline, or diagnostic window.


Cardiac Markers

CK-MB - Creatine Kinase Muscle Brain

Creatine Kinase (CK or CPK) is an enzyme (a type of protein) found in Muscle and Brain. Normally, very little CK is found circulating in the blood. Elevated levels indicate damage to either muscle or brain; possibly from a myocardial infarction (heart attack), muscle disease, or stroke.

Using the Target Reader system for quantitative detection of CK-MB in a sample of serum, the Target CK-MB test provides a rapid diagnostic method to determine excess amounts of CK-MB in the blood. The amount of CK-MB measured in the blood stream can provide useful information to help confirm or exclude that myocardial infarction has occurred.

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C-Reactive Protein (CRP)

CRP is a protein in the body that increases when there is inflammation, including inflammation of the blood vessels. Elevated CRP levels may indicate a risk of future heart attack up to 8 years in advance, even if cholesterol levels are low.

Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) is a highly prevalent condition in the United States and may have implications for helping to identify people with high cardiovascular risk who may not otherwise be candidates for medical therapy under current treatment guidelines. The overall prevalence of elevated CRP is 47.1% (male 40.2%, female 54.1%), and is significantly higher among the obese, those ages 55-74, females, and persons with high triglycerides.


Myoglobin is a protein found in muscle. Myoglobin tests are done to evaluate a person who has symptoms of a heart attack (myocardial infarction) or other muscle damage.  When muscle is damaged, as in a heart attack, larger amounts of myoglobin are released and blood levels rise rapidly.  Myoglobin has the earliest diagnostic window. It is the first marker to rise after chest pain begins.

Myoglobin levels rise within two to three hours, and sometimes as early as 30 minutes. They peak after six to nine hours. The levels return to normal within 24-36 hours. The myoglobin test is sometimes repeated every one to two hours to watch for the rise and peak. Results are available within minutes.

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cTn1 - Cardiac Troponin 1

Quantitative Cardiac Troponin 1 tests are used to analyze the amount of Cardiac Troponin 1 in serum and plasma as an aid in the rapid diagnosis of myocardial infarction (heart attack). Troponin 1 is a a protein with a high specificity for cardiac injury.

Cardiac troponin is a protein that controls the interactions of two other substances (actin and myosin) that contract or squeeze the heart muscle. Normal levels of cardiac troponin in the blood are very low, but they rise sharply and quickly in response to a heart muscle injury. Cardiac troponin is more sensitive to damage than CK and is therefore valuable at detecting mild heart attacks and early detection of other heart problems. Troponin I levels have also been used to help predict a patient’s heart attack risk because of their sensitivity and the fact that elevated levels are specific to a heart injury.

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