Target System Qualitative Diagnostics detect the presence of specific markers and the results are indicated as a positive or negative. The Qualitative Diagnostic specimen collection kits are all-inclusive and can be administered and qualified without the need for additional hardware.
Rubella, German measles, is a highly contagious diseases which is generally transmitted by direct contact with infected persons. Rubella is generally a mild disease. However, when a pregnant woman becomes infected with rubella, the virus may infect the palcenta, multiply and induce serious damage to the fetus.
Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome became nationally notifiable diseases in 1966. The largest annual total of cases of rubella in the United States was in 1969, when 57,686 cases were reported (58 cases per 100,000 population). Following vaccine licensure in 1969, rubella incidence fell rapidly. By 1983, fewer than 1,000 cases per year were reported (<0.5 cases per 100,000 population). A moderate resurgence of rubella occurred in 1990-1991, primarily due to outbreaks in California (1990) and among the Amish in Pennsylvania (1991). In 2002 a record low annual total of 18 cases was reported.
Group A Streptococci
Strep throat is an infection of the pharynx (the part of the throat between the tonsils and the larynx) caused by streptococcus bacteria. The infection is spread by person-to-person contact with nasal secretions or saliva, often among family or household members.. Even though the sore throat usually gets better on its own, people who have strep throat should take antibiotics to prevent some of the more serious complications of this infection, particularly acute rheumatic fever.
Approximately 15% of children who have a sore throat and fever are infected by Group A streptococci. CDC estimates that approximately 9,100 cases of invasive GAS disease (rate: 3.2/100,000) and 1,350 deaths occurred nationally during 2002. Disease incidence was highest among children aged <1 year (6.9/100,000) and adults aged >65 years.
Human rotavirus is recognized as a major cause of gastroenteritis in infants, young children, and the elderly. During the winter months a portion of gastroenteritis in children is due to rotavirus infection. The disease manifests with the symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is important to avoid inappropriate antibiotic therapy, provide proper treatment early, and to prevent spread of nosocomial infection.
Globally, rotavirus accounts for an estimated 125 million cases of diarrhea each year and represents 30%- 40% of hospitalizations for diarrhea in children under five years. In developing countries, between 600,000 and 800,000 children die from rotavirus each year (or approximately 2,000 children each day.) This accounts for about one quarter of the deaths from diarrhea and about 5% of all deaths among children less than five years of age.
IM - Infectious Mononucleosis
Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a viral infection causing high temperature, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands, especially in the neck. It is typically caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Infectious mononucleosis may begin slowly with fatigue, malaise, headache, and sore throat. The sore throat becomes progressively worse, often with enlarged tonsils covered with a whitish-yellow fibrinous exudate. The lymph nodes in the neck are frequently enlarged and painful. Symptoms of mononucleosis gradually subside over a period of weeks to a month. The disease is generally self-limited.
CMV - Herpes
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a human viral pathogen belonging to the Herpes family. Infection in humans is widespread and usually results in asymptomatic disease. However, severe symptomatic infections are a very significant risk in infants and Immuno-compromised individuals. An important primary source of such infection is via blood transfusion and allograft transfer. The serological status of donor and recipient is, therefore, important in patient management.
The United States is not unique in its high rates of seroprevalence. Virtually every country in the world presents similar numbers. Since recurrences are often mild and few patients are aware that they are infected, the infection is likely to continue to rise at double-digit rates without an intervention.
Today, over 42 million people are estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS. Of these, 38.6 million are adults. 19.2 million are women. With the recent advent of Rapid HIV testing, HIV detection and prevention programs around the world have become increasingly effective by reducing their time and costs of detecting the virus, thus allowing for a far greater number of individuals to be screened.